A Test of the Copernican Principle

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. However, as physicists Robert Caldwell of Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire, and Albert Stebbins of Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois, point out, the Copernican principle has never been confirmed as a whole. In a recent paper published in Physical Review Letters called “A Test of the Copernican Principle,” the two researchers set out to prove the 500-year-old principle using observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB).“The Copernican principle is a cornerstone of most of astronomy, it is assumed without question, and plays an important role in many statistical tests for the viability of cosmological models,” Stebbins told PhysOrg.com. “It is also a necessary consequence of the stronger assumption of the Cosmological Principle: namely, that not only do we not live in a special part of the universe, but there are no special parts of the universe – everything is the same everywhere (up to statistical variation). “It is a very handy principle, since it implies that here and now is the same as there and now, and here and then is the same as there and then. We do not have to look back in time at our current location to see how the universe was in our past – we can just look very far away, and given the large light travel time, we are looking at a distant part of the universe in the distant past. Given the Cosmological Principle, their past is the same as our past.”Cosmic DistortionWhen the universe was just 400,000 years old, matter and radiation decoupled and left a remnant radiation that still pervades the entire universe today. By measuring the tiny temperature fluctuations of this CMB radiation, scientists can learn things about the universe such as its shape, size, and rate of expansion. In the latter case, the observations show that the universe is expanding at an ever-accelerating rate, leading scientists to speculate about the existence of dark energy, new laws of gravity, and other possible – and often exotic – theories.But what if the universe’s accelerating expansion is just an illusion? As Caldwell and Stebbins explained, this scenario is entirely plausible if the Copernican principle is loosened a bit. If, instead of the universe being homogenous and isotropic as the Cosmological Principle states, there is rather “a peculiar distribution of matter centered upon our location,” then the universe would be centered on a low-density, matter-dominated void. Such a universe would be non-accelerating, and there would be no need for dark energy or other similar theories. That’s why it’s important to know if the Copernican principle is correct: it will ensure that CMB observations haven’t been misinterpreted to indicate cosmic acceleration when there is none. To test the principle, Caldwell and Stebbins developed a “CMB-distortion test”: they looked for deviations of the CMB spectrum from a perfect blackbody as might have been caused by a large, local void. A void or other “non-Copernican structure” would cause ionized gas to move relative to the CMB, and the Doppler-shifted CMB scattered toward us could contain detectable deviations from a blackbody. “In essence, we use the reionized Universe as a mirror to look at ourselves in CMB light,” the researchers explained. “If we see ourselves in the mirror, it is because ours is a privileged location. If we see nothing [i.e. no peculiar distortions] in the mirror, then the Copernican principle is upheld.”The Hubble BubbleAs an initial test, Caldwell and Stebbins focused on a universe model consisting of a simple, spherically symmetric void, which is also known as a “Hubble bubble.” This void universe resembles an open (low-density) universe embedded inside a flat (medium-density) universe. The size of the void depends on how gas is distributed throughout the universe. Basically, gas can exist in three zones – neutral, reflection, and Doppler – depending on its redshift. Depending on how these three zones overlap, the void can come in five sizes, from small to “superhorizon,” where the void encompasses the entire observable universe.Using their CMB-distortion test, the researchers calculated that only the smaller void models could lead to the type of distortion associated with a violation of the Copernican principle. Then, by analyzing data for the CMB spectrum, they were able to rule out nearly all of these non-Copernican Hubble bubble void universes – meaning the Copernican principle passed this first test. However, Caldwell and Stebbins also noted that other models – such as those with a higher density or smaller radius – may still exist that evade this test.The researchers added that this is not the first time that bits of the Copernican principle have been tested, but it is one of the first tests of the remaining radial inhomogeneity on very large scales. Caldwell explained that, in 1995, physicist Jeremy Goodman of Princeton proposed a similar test of spectral distortions. Goodman’s implementation resulted in a weaker constraint, or test, of the Copernican principle.“This [large-scale testing] is not easy to do because, when we look far away, we are looking back in time, and it is difficult to say whether what we see is due to changes with time, which does not violate the Copernican principle, or changes with distance, which does,” Stebbins explained. “Thus, it is a hard question to answer, which is why it has not been done.”More TestsIn the future, the scientists plan to further pinpoint the CMB distortions that could be caused by a local non-Copernican structure, and also apply the test to other more general universe models. These tests should be useful in potentially ruling out alternative hypotheses for dark energy, as Caldwell explained. More fundamentally, the tests could either verify the foundation of centuries of astronomical work, or – and the chance is slim – suggest that the Copernican principle may not be as certain as we think.“If our test of the Copernican principle were to fail, it would probably not be believed, and a variety of other observations would be required to test it,” Stebbins said. “If all these further tests confirmed the large void, then we would have to rethink our ideas about dark energy, or, namely, unthink them. “I think the scientific community would not be too unhappy with the idea of a large under-dense region – it is not hard to think of ideas of how they might come to be, even in the context of a hot big bang model. What is hard to understand is why we would be so close to the center of one. No doubt someone would come up with an ‘anthropic’ argument for it – but I’ve thought a bit about that, and don’t really think there is a salable anthropic explanation. (By the way, I don’t think there is a salable intelligent design reason, either.) In the end, we might have to live with the Walter Cronkite explanation ‘… and that’s the way it is …. ’”More information: Caldwell, R. R. and Stebbins, A. “A Test of the Copernican Principle.” Physical Review Letters 100, 191302 (2008). Copyright 2008 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. This image shows a cross-section of a void universe with an observer (O) in the center, in violation of the Copernican principle. CMB photons (yellow lines) can scatter off reionized gas, and some may lead to CMB distortions. Credit: Caldwell, R. R. and Stebbins, A. ©2008 APS. Explore furthercenter_img Earth not center of the universe, surrounded by ‘dark energy’: cosmologists report Citation: A Test of the Copernican Principle (2008, May 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-05-copernican-principle.html The Copernican principle states that the Earth is not the center of the universe, and that, as observers, we don’t occupy a special place. First stated by Copernicus in the 16th century, today the idea is wholly accepted by scientists, and is an assumed concept in many astronomical theories.last_img read more

Google Holdem Poker Does Google Have An OS Up Their Sleeve

first_img How DNA outside cells can be targeted to prevent the spread of cancer Net Applications came up with the novel discovery that somewhere between 11-percent to 30-percent of Web traffic streaming out of Google is cleaned of identifying information. The call of the story is, “That begs the question: What secret is it that Google doesn’t want the rest of the Web to know.” Sounds mysterious, it’s too bad the writer and Net Applications didn’t read, Forbes’ How To Erase Your Tracks Online, or for non-readers In Pictures: Eight Ways To Guard Your Online Privacy, September 08, 2008 slide show. The Boy Genius Report casts a “Ree-hee-healy?” to Net Applications’ blockbuster discovery which in sum goes, “We have never seen an OS stripped of the user agent string before.” I believe you have to arrange to have that happen, it’s not something we have seen before in a proxy server.” Net Applications, “The Movie” then sums up the insidious plot by saying. “All I can tell you is there’s a good percentage of the people at Google showing up [at Web pages] with their OS hidden,” according to a Net Applications spokesperson. Boy Genius, has his own idea of the Google’s Magical Mystery OS. See: Google Working on a New Mystery OS, December 6 post. His post and comments take some of the air out of the floating rumors. It’s worth a fun read time. Google Watch by Clint Boulton, congratulates his former colleague Andy Patrizio for “ferretting out a fascinating new Google rumor” spawned by his interview of a Net Applications spokesperson. His conclusion is essentially, if many Googlers are running a clandestine OS of an undetermined origin, “this would fit the Google MO, wouldn’t it?”, referencing the September 2 launch of Chrome after two-years of back and forth. Blount is hardly awestruck by the idea Google might want to go it alone with their own OS and in the process cut into Microsoft’s behemoth IE. His sources speculate that the “Web Only” browser Chrome could be the front door to access some kind of big social network where OpenID reigns or possibly a combo of Chrome and its extension application Gears. He quotes Rob Enderle of the Enderle Group, who said a Google OS would be an extension of Android OS recently released for mobile phones and big plans for future devices. Blount presents a query, “Could Google employees be surfing the Web on Android phones? Comments on the Forbes, “Google’s Invisibility Cloak” are priceless. Credit where credit is due goes to “Levifig” referencing Google’s penchant for secrecy, he posts the following, ” Secrecy isn’t the opposite of Openness in the business world! Why would Google let other companies into their business strategy?? Why would they have a great idea and have their competitors market it, especially when most of their competitors would charge what they would release for free?? Seriously…” Another gem by “Fantomaster” who isn’t sure if he should laugh or cry at the speculation about Google’s anonymity mystery. His insightful post points out that faking UAs is like an Al Gore moment. It is has been done for years and “Incidentally it’s one of the tenets of safeguarding your online privacy, too.” Personally, I sure hope these two don’t read my articles.In preparation for this story, I found a recent paper by Andrew G. Morgan of Google Inc. and Serge E. Hallyn entitled, “Linux Capabilities: Making Them Work”. The paper addresses the modern applications of the Linux system in light of new kernel developments including VFS support and per-process support for bounded-set and secure-bits demonstating the full range of Linux security capabilities. I contacted Andrew G. Morgan for his take on the Google Hold’em Poker OS rumor, but as of this writing I have not heard back.Forbes Google’s Invisibility Cloak story:www.forbes.com/technology/2008 … x_ew_1205google.htmlBoy Genius Blog story: www.boygeniusreport.com/2008/1 … on-a-new-mystery-os/© 2008 PhysOrg.com Citation: Google Hold’em Poker: Does Google Have An OS Up Their Sleeve? (2008, December 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-12-google-holdem-poker-os-sleeve.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.center_img (PhysOrg.com) — Google card shark watchers have been placing side bets on the possibility that Google may be holding back some news on a new OS. The search giant has been the subject of rumors in Forbes, BoyGenius Blog, Google Watch and more. Forbes’ intriguing article title is, ” Google’s Invisibility Cloak” stokes the fire with a not so “Elementary my dear Watson” approach. The genesis of the speculation is a “Eureka” moment from Net Applications a company in Aliso Viejo that produces an analytic software for tracking Internet trends around the world. Explore furtherlast_img read more

Study shows genes may play a role in promiscuity

first_imgCaptive Zebra Finch Taeniopygia guttata at Bodelwyddan Castle Aviary, Denbighshire, Wales. Image: Arpingstone/Wikipedia. (PhysOrg.com) — In a recent study, in what is likely to stir some controversy, researchers from the Max Planck Institute in Germany have shown that finches in the wild, normally a monogamous type of bird, tend to cheat on their “spouses” and what’s more, it appears to be an inherited trait; but that’s not the end of it, the researchers also suggest in their paper, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, that such inherited traits may also exist in other species, including man. It has actually been known for quite some time that finches tend to stray, and while the male behavior seemed clear and well understood, the female behavior was somewhat of a puzzle. The males, by straying were spreading their seed around, thus keeping things in the finch world, richly diversified. But why would the females go along with the whole game, as there didn’t seem any reward for them?To find out, the team, led by Wolfgang Forstmeier, studied 1,554 zebra finches over five generations; taking DNA samples along the way. In addition to studying their natural behavior, they also swiped the eggs from some nests and deposited them in others to make sure the birds weren’t learning their errant behavior from a parent.What they found was that male finches with a father that strayed, were more likely to stray themselves, regardless of whether that father was around to help raise them. They also found the same was true for the females, a surprising result, but one that makes sense when you consider that if birds in any given area are to remain diversified, at least some of the females are going to have to stray as well; but not all, as clearly finches benefit from having nearly monogamous mates to help raise their young.The authors, even as they step out on a limb to suggest the same traits may hold true for human beings as well as for birds, immediately backtrack, making it clear they realized that there is far more going on when people stray, than when birds do so. Even so, it’s an interesting idea; one some people might use after learning about the results of this study, when looking for a rationale to excuse their behavior. More information: Female extrapair mating behavior can evolve via indirect selection on males, PNAS, Published online before print June 13, 2011, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1103195108AbstractIn many species that form socially monogamous pair bonds, a considerable proportion of the offspring is sired by extrapair males. This observation has remained a puzzle for evolutionary biologists: although mating outside the pair bond can obviously increase the offspring production of males, the benefits of such behavior to females are less clear, yet females are known to actively solicit extrapair copulations. For more than two decades adaptionist explanations have dominated the discussions, yet remain controversial, and genetic constraint arguments have been dismissed without much consideration. An intriguing but still untested hypothesis states that extrapair mating behavior by females may be affected by the same genetic variants (alleles) as extrapair mating behavior by males, such that the female behavior could evolve through indirect selection on the male behavior. Here we show that in the socially monogamous zebra finch, individual differences in extrapair mating behavior have a hereditary component. Intriguingly, this genetic basis is shared between the sexes, as shown by a strong genetic correlation between male and female measurements of extrapair mating behavior. Hence, positive selection on males to sire extrapair young will lead to increased extrapair mating by females as a correlated evolutionary response. This behavior leads to a fundamentally different view of female extrapair mating: it may exist even if females obtain no net benefit from it, simply because the corresponding alleles were positively selected in the male ancestors. Explore further Citation: Study shows genes may play a role in promiscuity (2011, June 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-06-genes-role-promiscuity.html © 2010 PhysOrg.com Infidelity pays off for female Gouldian finches This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Trisulfur anion helps explain gold deposits on Earth

first_img © 2015 Phys.org New form of sulfur discovered in geological fluids A conglomerate of researchers hailing from the CNRS and several universities, and organizations in France has found a possible cause for the higher concentrations of gold. They propose that under hydrothermal conditions, the trisulfur ion (S3-) plays a key role in the deposition of gold. Their findings have implications for the way scientists predict the location of gold deposits and may lead to as-yet-discovered sites. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy, hydrothermal reactor measurements coupled with first-principle molecular dynamics, and thermodynamic modeling, they provide quantitative data for the effect of the trisulfur ion in hydrothermal conditions. Their work appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. According to Pokrovski et al., existing gold speciation studies ignore the trisulfur anion, S­3-. Prior studies by this group and others have shown that the trisulfur ion exists in aqueous environments at high temperatures and pressures. For example, in previous research using in situ Raman spectroscopy, Pokrovski’s group demonstrated that this form of sulfur is stable in aqueous solutions in a temperature range of at least 200oC to ~700oC and 30bar. Trisulfur had been difficult to identify because at cooler temperatures S­3- breaks down to sufate and sulfide in aqueous solutions. Their prior work provided an impetus for considering more than hydrogen sulfide and chloride, the trisulfur anion in analyzing gold transport and deposition.In an effort to quantify how S3- affects the concentration and precipitation of gold from aqueous hydrothermal fluids, Pokrovski et al. used model fluid systems comprised of gold metal and hydrogen sulfide, sulfate, and S3- and varied many of the system parameters such as temperature, pressure, redox potential, and acidity. Their data is from in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and hydrothermal reactor measurements assisted by first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) and thermodynamic modeling.Their study reveals that while Au(HS)2- is the most stable species in aqueous solutions at moderate temperatures (<250oC), as the concentration of S3- increases with increasing temperature, the measured gold concentrations became significantly greater than in hydrogen sulfide solutions alone. Of the possible S3- ion complexes, Au(HS)S3- was found to be the most stable. They point out that their estimates are likely lower than the reality because in addition to Au(HS)S3- other gold-trisulfur species may be stable beyond the temperature and pressure conditions of their experiments.Their studies demonstrate three properties of S3- that could explain observations at certain gold deposit sites. These observations strongly argue for a change in the way ore deposition is modeled. First, the trisulfur ion serves to enhance gold extraction from deep seated magma or rocks. The trisulfur complex is stable and highly soluble, meaning that more gold can be found in a small amount of aqueous fluid compared to hydrogen sulfide and chloride complexes. Indeed, their data show gold concentration levels that coincide with some of the highest gold concentrations found in natural fluid inclusions trapped in minerals in gold ore deposit systems. These concentrations are much higher than what would be predicted with traditional modeling.Additionally, the S3- ion is sensitive to temperature, pressure, redox potential, pH as well as sulfur concentration. Their data demonstrate that only small changes in any one of these variables can result in a significant amount of gold from Au(HS)S3- precipitating in a very short amount of time. This may account for certain isolated locations containing an unusually large gold grades.Finally, S3- is highly selective for gold and, possibly, some other sulfur-loving metals (e.g., platinoids, molybdenum, rhenium). This kind of selectivity may account for the high concentration of gold in aqueous solutions as well as the metal signatures found in particular deposit sites. This may also account for oddities, such as the elevated molybdenum concentrations in porphyry systems below 500oC."Our findings show that one of the oldest metals, known from Antiquity, has yet to divulge all its secrets," says lead author Gleb Pakrovski. "We are just at the beginning of our understanding of geological fluids from the deep." Native gold nugget. Credit: public domain This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Trisulfur anion helps explain gold deposits on Earth (2015, October 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-10-trisulfur-anion-gold-deposits-earth.htmlcenter_img Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Explore further (Phys.org)—People have been excavating gold for thousands of years as a precious rare metal. Gold is in relatively low abundance in the Earth’s crust likely coming from the metallic core and from meteorites. For reasons that are not entirely known, even though the average amount of gold throughout the Earth’s crust is small, there are deposits containing gold in significantly greater concentrations than the crust’s average abundance. These deposits tend to be in locations of geological activity and are likely due to the action of hydrothermal fluids. However, the concentration of gold in deposits is still higher than what would be expected from solutions carrying gold-chloride or gold-hydrogen sulfide. More information: Gleb S. Pokrovski et al. Sulfur radical species form gold deposits on Earth, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2015). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1506378112AbstractCurrent models of the formation and distribution of gold deposits on Earth are based on the long-standing paradigm that hydrogen sulfide and chloride are the ligands responsible for gold mobilization and precipitation by fluids across the lithosphere. Here we challenge this view by demonstrating, using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and solubility measurements, coupled with molecular dynamics and thermodynamic simulations, that sulfur radical species, such as the trisulfur ion S−3, form very stable and soluble complexes with Au+ in aqueous solution at elevated temperatures (>250 °C) and pressures (>100 bar). These species enable extraction, transport, and focused precipitation of gold by sulfur-rich fluids 10–100 times more efficiently than sulfide and chloride only. As a result, S−3 exerts an important control on the source, concentration, and distribution of gold in its major economic deposits from magmatic, hydrothermal, and metamorphic settings. The growth and decay of S−3 during the fluid generation and evolution is one of the key factors that determine the fate of gold in the lithosphere.last_img read more

Study of rock samples suggests Campi Flegrei could be reentering a new

first_img © 2018 Science X Network This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. A view of the Campi Flegrei caldera from Posillipo hill. Credit: Francesca Forni Journal information: Science Advances Explore further Campi Flegrei volcano eruption possibly closer than thoughtcenter_img More information: Francesca Forni et al. Long-term magmatic evolution reveals the beginning of a new caldera cycle at Campi Flegrei, Science Advances (2018). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat9401 A team of researchers from ETH Zürich, Cardiff University, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and Sapienza-Università di Roma has found evidence that suggests Campi Flegrei could be re-entering a phase of pressure buildup. In their paper published in the journal Science Advances, the group describes their study of rock samples collected from the area and what they found. Citation: Study of rock samples suggests Campi Flegrei could be re-entering a new phase of pressure buildup (2018, November 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-11-samples-campi-flegrei-re-entering-phase.html The Phlegraean Fields (part of which is known as Campi Flegrei) is an area located near the western coast of Italy that has a long volcanic history—there are 24 craters and other land shapes in the vicinity that have come about due to eruptions. The most recent eruption was not very violent but it did create a mountain in the area back in 1583—it has been named, Monte Nuovo. Notably, Campi Flegrei is also close to Naples—to the west. Vesuvius is to the east. In this new effort, the researchers have been studying rock samples collected in the area to learn more about the history of eruptions. By learning more about the conditions that lead up to eruptions, volcanologists hope one day to figure out how to predict eruptions.Prior research has shown that Campi Flegrei experienced two major eruptions over the past 60,000 years—one approximately 15,000 years ago, and one 39,000 years ago. Both have been described as cataclysmic, offering a hint of what might occur should the volcano erupt similarly today—the area is home to approximately 1.5 million people. There have also been numerous smaller eruptions. What they all have in common are changes to rocks, glass and minerals that are moved from underground to the surface by geologic forces. The researchers studied rocks known to have been blasted or forced from the ground due to multiple eruptions and then compared them to see if they could spot patterns.The researchers found evidence suggesting that Campi Flegrei might be entering a new phase of pressure buildup—one that could potentially precede an eruption. But they also note that they found no evidence that suggests the volcano might erupt any time soon. The type of build-up they describe occurs over hundreds or thousands of years.last_img read more

All rise for the Hors d oeuvres

first_imgAt Rise Productions is back with its 12th stage production, Hors d’ oeuvres. Based on the unique concept of promoting one act plays. Hors d’ oeuvres has taken the onus of promoting talent. Hors d’ oeuvres 2012 was staged at Sri Ram centre and the theme last year was insecurity and was articulated with two humorous yet deep scripts. This year the theme has been picked to be bi-polar and includes a one fall on the ground, slap my face funny adaptation of the famous Broadway show The Foreigner by Larry Shue. And the other is a first of its kind self written horror script about a man’s interaction with heaven.  Written and Directed by Archit Kumar, the cast includes Raghav Puri, Sanjana Chopra, Rahul Mudgal, Dhruv Raj Gupta, Ruchi Seth, Shivam Khanna, Namrata Bhatter, and Priya Mudgal.last_img

Shout out loud for Beltek

first_imgThe party season approaches as the mercury seems to be taking a breather. Adding to the ever expanding list of international DJs visiting the Capital gets one more name added. Here’s Martin Beltek Bijelic, better known simply as Beltek.In just a couple of years since he won Pete Tong’s competition with Copacabana, Beltek’s name regularly pops out on top of EDM music charts and labels such as Dim Mak, Ministry of Sound etc. His versatile production skills and fingerprint mass appealing sound already assured him remixing duties for major artists such as Faithless, Booka Shade, Gareth Emery and others. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’In the city for his maiden tour by Kyoas Entertainment, Millennium Post catches up with the artiste. Read on. How do you like the music scene in India?Actually I was really happy to see that a lot of people here in India know my music. So as far as I saw the scene here, I like it big time. When did you start with this career? My career started with my first release, Copacabana on Chris Lake’s label Rising Music in 2008. And the main suspect to blame for my career start was Pete Tong. Since I won his music production contest Bedroom Bedlam back in 2007 with my track Copacabana. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixHow has the journey been? Tell us about the best and the worst times so far…My journey was most of the time and still is very inspiring, joyful and positive for me. I think if you lose joy and inspiration for whatever is that you are doing, then you should definitely change your job. The only a bit not so cherished moments of my job are the flight and airport waiting moments. Those are the worst. What songs top your own playlist right now? Define your music philosophy for us Mike Hawkins, Pablo Oliveros – Bangover Jacob Plant – Fire and obviously some of my own.My music philosophy is simple – Like, Inhale, Connect and Party.last_img read more

When art comes calling on their doors

first_imgThe six-day exhibition displaying the officers creative works ranging from figurative drawings, photographs capturing the reflections of the world to embroideries using pearls and bead sequins are on show at the Hudco Art Gallery. ‘This exhibition was impromptu. In fact, nobody in our office knew that we are into paintings and craftsmanship,’ said Nirmala Pillai, currently working in the Department of Telecommunications as Advisor. Pillai has painted acrylics of women. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’‘I worked on acrylics. I like nature and many other small things which people ignore. I like to highlight them on my paintings,’ says Pillai who claims to be a self-taught artist.‘Painting is my passion…a strees-buster. I can give up anything for it,’ she says.Sumita Purkayastha, who works at the Department of Telecommunications as DG (NICF), has displayed her designs on saris, suits and dupattas in a combination of Mughal motif with material ranging from silk, tussar, crepes and cotton. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixShowcasing her love for candle-making, Monali P Dhakate, currently on deputation to Staff Selection Commission as Regional Director, has exhibited her collection of handmade candles and chocolates, which she says she had picked up during her days in school.‘The love for candles started in my school days where we were taught of candle making. My mother used to call this craft as mess. She always says to create something exceptional…you need to focus on the smallest details. These words were inspirational for me. The passion and love for the craft developed with time,’ she says.Monali, has showcased her handmade candles for the first time in a public exhibition.‘The idea to exhibit our works was proposed by Nirmala. So we thought let’s come out and show the other side of us which is vibrant and colourful,’ adds Monali.Director (SEA) in the Department of Telecommunications, Yashashri Shukla’s passion for photography is evident with photographs on display at the exhibition giving glimpses of the places she has travelled over the years.The photographs of sunset at Chidiyatapu, Port Blair, a couple walking on the Radhanagar beach at Havelock, Tibetian flags and the ‘Bovine Spa’ are some of her favourite collections.last_img read more

Vegetarian diet more harmful to environment says study

first_imgContrary to popular assumption — and a talk by actor Arnold Schwarzenegger at the United Nations Paris Climate Change Conference — eating a vegetarian diet could contribute more to climate change than eating a non-vegetarian diet, warns a new study.Schwarzenegger, a former California governor, advised people to go meat-free one or two days a week to help protect the climate.But the new research found that consuming more fruits, vegetables, dairy and seafood is more harmful to the environment because those foods have relatively high resource uses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per calorie. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’“Eating lettuce is over three times worse in greenhouse gas emissions than eating bacon,” said one of the researchers Paul Fischbeck, professor at Carnegie Mellon University in the US.“Lots of common vegetables require more resources per calorie than you would think. Eggplant, celery and cucumbers look particularly bad when compared to pork or chicken,” Fischbeck said.The study measured the changes in energy use, blue water footprint and GHG emissions associated with US food consumption patterns. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe researchers studied the food supply chain to determine how the obesity epidemic in the US is affecting the environment.Specifically, they examined how growing, processing and transporting food, food sales and service, and household storage and use take a toll on resources in the form of energy use, water use and GHG emissions. On the one hand, the results showed that getting our weight under control and eating fewer calories, has a positive effect on the environment and reduces energy use, water use and GHG emissions from the food supply chain by approximately nine per cent.However, eating the recommended “healthier” foods — a mix of fruits, vegetables, dairy and seafood — increased the environmental impact in all three categories — energy use went up by 38 per cent, water use by 10 per cent and GHG emissions by six per cent.The findings appeared in the journal Environment Systems and Decisions.last_img read more

Handson craft this summer

first_imgHolidays are happier in the beginning but soon turn out to be a boring routine for kids with each passing day. There are days when children would want to explore outdoor activities with friends; while there are others when they would just want to stay indoors. It is for the parents to ensure that their kids have a gala time during their vacation and simultaneously learn something productive.Keeping this in mind, Delhi Tourism has organised a Summer Craft Workshop in Dilli Haat, Janakpuri, for both children and adults which commenced on May 18 and will continue till June18. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’ Pottery, tie and dye, madhubani paintings, clay work and paper craft are some of the creative activities organised by Dilli Haat and the list also has entertaining yet challenging activities like robotics, vedic maths. Observing the overwhelming response of the audience, the organisation has decided to add many more activities very soon.In the rush of tuition, school, hobby classes, there is no time left to do things that kids genuinely enjoy and in the process they don’t even get quality time with their parents.  Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixDilli Haat encourages parents to turn up with their kids to the place so that they can have the fun of physical activities and explore their skills, creativity and other natural strengths unknown to them. These qualities only get highlighted when one take part in hands on activities that allow one to showcase their interests.So, get your kids outdoor this summer to experience the joy of learning crafts.When: June, 2016Where: Dilli HaatTimings: 11 am– 1 pmlast_img read more

A slice of Bengal in Denmark

first_imgNo matter how much we crib about our motherland or our culture, when we step out of the homeland we start missing all the little things which had meant nothing to us previously. Would it not be nice to have a dhaba below your apartment in the foreign land which would serve you chhole kulche or a shabby little tea-stall where you could sit all day and think of all the important things in life with a little kulladh of tea in hand?Homesickness is a powerful malady. There are some social volunteers who try to make you feel at home or at least closer to home when you are living in a far away land. One such sweet volunteer is Baishali Ghosh, from Assam, who owns a home-delivery restaurant called ‘Chakum Chukum’ in Copenhagen, Denmark. The mere words in the restaurant’s title do not carry any heavy message about food, but are denoted as the sounds made by a noisy eater in Bengali! A western gourmet may never understand the relevance of chakum chukum, but a bong or any other Indian foodie may. What’s the joy of food if you cannot dig in with your pretty hands? Also Read – Add new books to your shelf“The burning flame of desire to do something on my own always keeps me restless,” says Baishali Ghosh who has recently come up with a book titled ‘Spices of Life’ which she describes as “not just a book of recipes but it is the journey of my life.” She runs a food blog as well that goes by the same title as her restaurant– ‘Chakum Chukum with Baishali’. Her restaurant delivers delicacies like Dab Chingri, Potoler Dorma, Aloo Posto, Nargisi Kofta Curry, Chicken Tikka Masala, Suji Halwa and Nolen Gur ice cream among many other mouth-watering dishes! What if you like to order something you have seen on the blog which is not part of the restaurant menu? In that case, Baishali delivers that particular dish on request. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveWith a supportive family, Baishali had started her own business in India and had managed it well until a couple of years post marriage, when she had to move to Denmark giving in to her husband’s job relocation. “Managing different priorities at different stages of life did not diminish my ambition. When we started living in Copenhagen, I sensed an opportunity in converting my passion for cooking into a profession and started a takeaway restaurant. Even though I had my share of tribulations while emerging as a matured culinary free spirit, the journey had been wonderful. I don’t cook because I have to, but because I love to,” explains Baishali. Cooking is an art, and chefs are artists. So is our Baishali, who not only shares her knowledge about food and culinary inventions with the world but also has a keen interest in food photography. Knowledge is never confined in books, one gains it through travel as well, feels Baishali, “Travelling to different parts of the world exposed me to various cultures and traditions. Food is a reflection of culture and heritage.” This inspired Baishali to create fusion recipes form a blend of cultures, which is reflected in her book. Some of her recipes have also been published in reputed magazines, which eventually gave her confidence to pen down a book, where every photograph has been clicked by her without any professional guidance as she believes that food photography is about one’s eye more than the tool(camera). A creative cook can lend a unique flavour to the same old dish.Baishali had donated proceeds from the sale of her book ‘Spices of Life’ to Association for India’s Development (AID) which initiates and supports grass root efforts in agriculture, health, education, women’s rights and social justice in India. A definite good news for foodies- she plans to open a restaurant in Kolkata soon.last_img read more

Play with your sari for a different you

first_imgSaris can be formal, sexy, fun, traditional and so much more but wearing them in one style can make the most interesting and expensive look a tad boring. How about giving this six yard wonder a different draping every time you step out? * Sari as a gown: This style is comfortable yet very chic. It gives a classy look that can be a perfect choice for a cocktail outfit. These sari gowns are for those who don’t want to tuck in and drape saris the traditional way. Even if you step over the pleats and tucks, the sari-cum-gown stays in place. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf* Sari over pants: To look more trendy, you can opt for the pant style sari. For this, you would need a pair of jeggings or leggings, crop top or choli and heels. Just start by pleating one end of the sari as you would want to drape it, pinning it up and tucking it into your pants at the centre and then the other end can be draped as a chunni across the shoulders in various ways.* Sari over lehenga: Like traditional sari, one can wear lehenga style sari over a skirt along with a beautifully designed blouse. This look is achieved with the help of several pleats tucked around the waist giving an illusion of a lehenga. This is an outfit for ladies who are not comfortable with usual draping and pleating that the regular sari demands. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive* Two saris worn together like a lehenga: This is a unique type of draping two saris like a lehenga. This style includes draping two saris together in a seamless way. Double saris make the look trendier and it’s a great alternative for traditional single sari drape. So, wear them like a lehenga and stand out in the crowd!* Mermaid style: This style is suitable for almost all body types especially for the ones with a curvaceous figure. This kind of drape gives a slimmer look to the wearer. The lower portion of the sari is draped in such a way that it looks like a skirt and there are no pleats made in front. Pick a sari with a heavy pallu or embellished border for the mermaid style look. * Butterfly style: Butterfly style is also known as the Bollywood style of wearing a sari. In this style, the pallu is made very thin, such that the midriff or navel is visible. When thinking of wearing a sari in this particular style, go for materials like chiffon and net.* Sari in Paithani style: It’s also known as the sari style of Maharashtra. Paithani style is different from other traditional draping preferred by Indian women. The sari is also longer and no petticoat is required. Pair this look with a nose ring and jasmine flowers for your hair!last_img read more

Bengal Cong chief writes to Rahul urges him to take call on

first_imgKolkata: West Bengal Congress chief Somen Mitra Tuesday wrote a letter to party president Rahul Gandhi, underlining the need for “seat-sharing or alliance” with the CPI(M) to “stop the march of BJP in the state and dethrone the TMC in 2021 assembly polls”. According to sources in the state Congress, Mitra also mentioned about the “aspirations of party workers and leaders” to contest the 2019 polls from two seats – Raiganj and Murshidabad. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata Bose These two seats have been the bone of contention in the seat-sharing talks with the Left for the upcoming parliamentary elections. “I have written a letter to Rahulji with my assessment. Now it is for our party president and the AICC to take a call on the matter. I can’t disclose anything further,” Mitra told PTI. The development comes a day after the CPI(M) central committee, in a move to untangle the formula of seat-sharing between the two political blocs to consolidate anti-BJP and anti-TMC votes, proposed “no mutual contest” for the upcoming Lok Sabha elections in six seats currently held by the Congress and the Left Front in West Bengal. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: Mamata The state Congress leadership on Monday, reacting to the development had said there can be no compromise on its demand for the two parliamentary seats – Raiganj and Murshidabad, which are known as Congress strongholds. The Congress leadership had also said, if needed it is ready to fight the polls alone in case the Left Front does not leave these two parliamentary seats – which were won by the CPI(M) in 2014. These two constituencies were earlier known as traditional Congress bastions. In the letter, Mitra gave details and statistics of the vote percentage and the number of votes that different parties had received in the 2014 polls, and how the BJP has increased its vote share in those two seats in several by-elections and in the 2016 assembly polls. “Somen Mitra has urged the party high command to take the next step and talk to the Left leadership in Delhi to solve the impasse as the main objective is to defeat BJP at the Centre and the TMC in the state. “Now the ball is in the court of high command. Let’s see what happens next,” a senior Congress leader privy to the developments said. While the Congress had bagged four seats in the state in the 2014 general elections, the CPI(M) had won only Raiganj and Murshidabad seats. While Uttar Dinajpur’s Raiganj has been a pocketborough of Congress stalwart Priya Ranjan Dasmunsi, Murshidabad’s politics has been dominated by the party’s firebrand leader Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury. While Raiganj is represented by CPI (M)’s Mohammad Salim at present, Badaruddoza Khan represents Murshidabad. Though the Congress is yet to take a decision on the CPI(M)’s proposal, a senior leader privy to the seat-sharing discussions with the CPI(M) had said on Monday that the party will not compromise on the two constituencies — Raiganj and Murshidabad. “There are two prevailing views in the party. One view is we fight alone in Bengal as it is the Lok Sabha elections where the fight is between the Congress and the BJP and the second view is that we share seats with the CPI(M). But there will be no compromise on our demand for Raiganj and Murshidabad seats,” the Congress leader had said. “Raiganj and Murshidabad have long been a stronghold of the Congress. We lost these seats by a very small margin in 2014 polls due to a four-cornered contest. But this time we are confident of winning those two seats,” the Congress leader had said. The two parties had a similar tactical understanding in the 2016 assembly polls but it failed to have an impact as TMC won 211 seats in 294-member state assembly. In last three years, the BJP has outsmarted the Congress and the CPI(M) to become the main challenger to the TMC in Bengal.last_img read more

Abhishek urges Trinamool workers to put up united fight to oust BJP

first_imgBankura: Trinamool Youth Congress president Abhishek Banerjee urged party workers to put up a united fight to defeat BJP in the ensuing Lok Sabha elections.Addressing party workers here at a meeting on Monday afternoon, he said: “It is not Panchayat or Assembly elections. It is a fight between communal Narendra Modi and ‘agnikanya’ Mamata Banerjee. So work hard to ensure the victory of Trinamool Congress candidates.” The candidates from Bankura and Bishnupur, Subrata Mukherjee and Shyamal Santra were present at the meeting, along with MLAs, Panchayat and Zilla Parishad members and councillors of the civic bodies. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata BoseComparing the work carried out by Narendra Modi and Mamata Banerjee, he said the former has “only lied to the people while the latter has kept all her promises.” “Before the 2014 Lok Sabha election, Modi had assured us that he would bring black money from abroad and Rs 15 lakh would be credited to the account of every person. He had also assured that 2 crore youths would get jobs. But he did not keep his promises. On the other hand, Mamata Banerjee has kept all her promises. The Panchayat and Rural Development department has chalked out elaborate plans to provide drinking water in every household. There is electricity in every rural house and superspeciality hospitals have come up where treatment is free.” Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataHe urged the workers to put up a united fight to oust BJP and develop contacts with the local people. “You should listen to them carefully and try to address their problems,” he said, adding: “Those who are looking after the booths should concentrate on their work and will not have to work in the anchal level. Those who work in the block level will not have to work in the district level. Do your work seriously to ensure victory of Trinamool candidates.” The workers will have to aim for fulfilling Mamata Banerjee’s dream of winning in 42 out of 42 Lok sabha seats, he said.last_img read more

Hakim confident of Trinamool coming to power at Centre

first_imgKolkata: Senior Trinamool Congress leader and the state Urban Development and Municipal Affairs minister Firham Hakim on Thursday asserted that his party is coming to power at the Centre.In reply to a media question, Hakim said that Trinamool will be a decisive factor behind the formation of the new government at the Centre. He also categorically pointed out that his party will run the Central government. When asked about Pradesh Congress president Somen Mitra’s statement that they have no objection if Trinamool supports Congress in the Centre, Hakim said many parties will seek Trinamool’s support after the election results come out. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataHe hit out at BJP state president Dilip Ghosh, saying that the Mamata Banerjee-led government in the state has worked for the well-being of people from all walks of the society. Earlier in the day, Ghosh had said that Muslims are joining BJP in large numbers as both the Left Front and Trinamool Congress governments have failed to do anything for them. Countering Ghosh’s statement, Hakim said: “We are amazed to see that the party that only talks about dividing people on the basis of religion, is now trying to appease the Muslims. He does not know that the Trinamool Congress government has brought socio-economic changes for the people irrespective of their caste, creed and religion.” Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in state”People in Amlasol used to feed themselves with ants and boiled roots of trees, who are now getting 35 kg of rice per family. The tribal people in the tea gardens are also getting 35 kg rice per family through rationing system. Schools, colleges and health centres have been set up by the Mamata Banerjee government in Muslim dominated areas. Those who used to put a tag of Muslim appeasement on Banerjee, are now trying to woo the Muslim voters,” Hakim said.last_img read more

Second season of SBI Green Marathon to start soon

first_imgWith the remarkable success of inaugural edition of ‘SBI Green Marathon’, country’s largest commercial bank announces the launch of its second season.In its second edition, the mega event will be held in 15 cities across the country pledging for a greener future. The SBI Group is organizing a 5K, 10K, 21K run on November 11 in Kolkata. The event is going to be a zero-waste event and is expected to witness close to 3800 participants who will run to spread awareness about the importance of a cleaner and greener globe. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfSBI general insurance is going to be the health partner for SBI Green Marathon whereas SBI Life, SBI Mutual Funds and SBI Cards are also significantly contributing to this cause. The 15 city marathon event will start from September 30 in New Delhi followed by Lucknow, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Trivandrum, Guwahati, Bhopal, Bhubaneshwar, Chennai, Chandigarh, Ahmedabad, Patna and concluding in Jaipur on March 4, 2019. The run category for this fiscal’s SBI Green Marathon would include 5K, 10K and 21K. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveTalking about the event, Prashant Kumar, DMD, and CFO, SBI said, “It gives me immense pleasure to step into the second edition of SBI Green Marathon. With SBI Green Marathon, the bank has reaffirmed and endorsed its continued commitment towards a greener environment and sustainable development. We hope for maximum participation from across the country which in turn will help us achieve the goal of a greener future.” The ‘Run for Green’ theme of this marathon event recognises every participating individual as agents of change for a greener globe. All the participants will be given organic t-shirts to promote healthy and greener city. Even the runners’ bib would consist of seeds which can be planted after the Marathon. Also, the biodegradable and recyclable material is to be used by the bank making this a zero waste event. People interested in running SBI Green Marathon can register themselves on bookmyshow.com or youtoocanrun.com.last_img read more

Mason arrested for killing elderly couple in Kolkata

first_imgKolkata: A mason who worked at the residence of an elderly couple in Kolkata has been arrested for killing them, police said on Sunday. The bodies of Sapna Mukherjee (in her sixties) and her husband Dilip Mukherjee (in his seventies) were recovered on July 30 from their residence in Netajinagar. “Md Hamruj Alam, 38, a resident of Bihar’s Katihar has been arrested in connection with the Netajinagar murder and robbery case. He has confessed that he committed the crime. He ran away to Katihar after committing the crime,” a senior Kolkata police officer said. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: Mamata He said that Alam worked as a labourer at the house of the deceased couple. Some of the stolen articles and cash have been recovered from him. “He will be produced at the local court in Bihar and Kolkata Police will seek transit remand. Further details will be given once we get his custody and are able to further interrogate him,” the officer added. Raising concern over the incident, West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee had promised a thorough investigation in the matter. She had instructed police officers to ensure the full safety of the senior citizens. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in state In another incident, Kolkata police has arrested two persons for carrying more than 3 kg of crude heroin with an estimated value of around Rs 12 crore. Acting on a tip off, the Special Task Force of Kolkata police on Saturday intercepted a vehicle at Munsi Prem Chand Sarani and recovered 3.208 kg of crude heroin, concealed inside the door of the car. “Dipak Roy (46) and Kumar Chetri (34), residents of Assam, were arrested for joint possession of narcotic substances. The approximate cost of the narcotics may be between Rs 3-12 crore depending on the concentration,” police said.last_img read more

Theatre is actors medium Anupam Kher

first_imgThough cinema and theatre are branches of the same tree, there is one aspect that sets them apart – execution. Cinema, on one hand, is guided and controlled by the directors/editors, whereas theatre is said to be actors’ medium.After giving more than three decades of his life to cinema and theatre world, Veteran actor Anupam Kher, today, feels more inclined towards the latter. His love for the theatre is unparalleled, and he believes that stage is where his soul resides. “The magic of theatre is that you don’t need real settings. You have to be productive with the limited resources that are available. Once the actors come on stage (after all the rehearsals and instructions), it is their domain. Everything is left to acting, and it’s on the performers to take the story forward. That’s why I personally feel that stage is actors’ medium,” states Anupam. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf”However, in movies, it is the other way around. After the shot is taken, actors have no idea how the scenes will be edited, or how the film will be shaped for the final release. All they can do is give their best and leave the rest on directors and editors,” he adds. The actor is at that stage of his career, where he does theatre and films out of choice and not compulsion. “I have done all kinds of films and plays – historical, experimental. But today, I want to play characters which people can relate to. I cannot be a part of something where the audience just sits back, and not feel connected to what’s happening on stage.” Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive”I have always made sure that my plays have some universal emotions like happiness, disgust, fear, anger, surprise, and sadness. When the viewers experience those emotions and relate to them, they become a part of that story.” Till date, Kher has been a part of more than 500 films and uncountable plays, but the energy, seriousness towards his character, and passion for acting hasn’t changed at all. Even today, he rehearses before every performance. “Of course I rehearse. In fact, I am petrified before every play of mine,” he mentions. “I don’t talk to anybody, I don’t eat anything. Even now, while I am talking with you, somewhere in my mind the thought of next performance is scaring me. No matter how many shows I have done, the feeling remains the same. Ask anybody from the unit, they know that ‘Mr. Kher will be quite before his appearance on the stage. He won’t eat, and might have breakdowns anytime’,” he adds.last_img read more

Tres Maestros An amalgam of representational art

first_imgOrganised by Allure Art, an exhibition titled ‘Tres Maestros’, which is an amalgam of representational art, at a time which has been dubbed as a slowing down period for exhibitions, is destined to become a landmark show of the Capital.Consisting of the works of a formidable triad of artists – Niren Sengupta, Nupur Kundu, and Niladri Pal – this exhibition at the Visual Art Gallery, India Habitat Centre is guaranteed to appeal to every class of viewers from July 22 to 26, 2019. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfThe representational art from these palettes will have another plus point in their large size formats, which will allow viewers to enjoy the works of these senior artists. Once again, through this exhibition, viewers will be reminded of the vivid details of their strong points as they appear on a gallery wall, and is made known through a common medium of acrylic on canvas. This tripartite pictorial engagement will not be a rehash of old works by these artists, but will sport a collective of fresh canvases that dazzle with the brilliance of colour applications, triggering liberating moods and definable strokes. It is tactile and subliminal, pictorial and perspective-ridden, thoughtful and playful, bearing a strong narrative, knitting them into a holistic yet distinct arrangement. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveWhile the works of senior artist Niren Sengupta will bear a sensory quality suggestive of the solidity of form, through their squared chunkiness, the instant appeal of his works will come from his colour palette choices, as also the astute placements of his forms that suggest an entertaining theatricality. Ranging from sombre browns to eye-catching blues and greys and ochres, the vision is drawn towards the central plane, of spatial sparseness amidst the accents of colour blocks, orchestrating on the peripheral surrounds. Coming to the works of artist Niladri Pal, the viewer will not be burdened with the task of abstract interpretation, but only up to a point. His flowing images of the youthful female figure central to space has a strong realistic format The stark features of the faces is fleecily covered with dubs of pinks and blues, violets and crimson, ably contrasted against a plain backdrop which too, is dotted with whimsical baubles of colour daubs. The works of artist Nupur Kundu will make your eye travel into deep depths as also expand the vision to take in the panoramic view.last_img read more

Nevermore…The Unanswered Questions Surrounding the Final Days of Edgar Allan Poe

first_imgEdgar Allan Poe, born in 1809, was a writer, poet, and critic. His stories were full of horror and mystery, and were the beginning of the modern detective story. His works were profoundly imaginative, often a bit eerie, and full of mystery. The same can be said for both his life and his death. According to the Poe Museum, Poe was born to a pair of actors, both of whom died by the time he was three. He lived a life full of economic struggles and loss, all the while writing many stories, poems, and works of literary criticism.Edgar Allan Poe.On September 27, 1849, Poe set out from Richmond, Virginia, on a journey to Philadelphia. He was going there to edit a poetry collection for Mrs. St. Leon Loud. He was found in Baltimore on October 3, semi-conscious and unable to move, by a man named Joseph Walker.Poe was lying in the gutter outside a polling station on voting day, delirious, and wearing shabby second-hand clothes, according to the Smithsonian.Poe Shrine, at Richmond, Virginia. Erected about 1686, the building is probably the oldest in Richmond. Although it has no direct association with Edgar Allan Poe, the great Southern poet and writer, it is now a repository for some of Poe’s important papers and other possessions.When he offered his aid, Poe asked him to contact a friend, Joseph Snodgrass, who took him to the hospital. He died on October 7th, four days after being found in Baltimore, having never regained consciousness enough to tell anyone how he came to be in that city, or what had happened to him.The night before his death he was reported to have called out the name “Reynolds,” but no one could determine who that was, or why Poe was calling for him.Portrait of Poe by William Abbot Pratt from September 1849, a month before his death.Since there are so many unanswered questions around his death, there are a number of theories about how it all came to pass.One theory is that he had been severely beaten, and possibly robbed by ruffians on the street.It is also thought he may have been the victim of a practice called cooping. Cooping was a type of voter fraud practiced by gangs in the 1800s. Victims would be kidnapped, disguised, and forced to vote for a specific candidate several times, each time using a different, disguised identity.Cottage in Fordham (now the Bronx) where Poe spent his last years.Back then voters might be given some alcohol as a reward for voting. It might not be an accident that he was found outside of a polling station on Election Day. If he had been forced to vote multiple times, that might explain his condition. This is a pretty widely accepted idea.Alcohol may have also been the culprit. It’s been well documented that Poe couldn’t handle alcohol and could be very drunk after even one glass of wine. Since his sister was the same way, it’s thought to be some sort of hereditary issue.Edgar Allan Poe is buried at Westminster Hall in Baltimore, Maryland.He struggled with alcohol much of his adult life, and many people believe that he drank himself to death, but Poe had joined a Temperance League months before death, however, avoiding all alcohol. There’s speculation that he fell off the wagon, but no real proof.This version also fails to take into account his five-day disappearance, or the second-hand clothes he was found in.1848 “Ultima Thule” daguerreotype of PoeIn 1999 health researcher Albert Donnay argued that Poe died from carbon monoxide poisoning from the coal gas that was used in indoor lighting at the time. Donnay took clippings of Poe’s hair and tested them for heavy metals that would prove the theory, but the tests were inconclusive.The test didn’t show levels of heavy metal consistent with carbon monoxide poisoning, but it did show that Poe had elevated mercury levels for months before his death. Poe had been exposed to a cholera epidemic in July of that year, and his physician treated him with calomel, or mercury chloride.Poe’s Desk.Mercury poisoning would certainly explain his hallucinations and delirium in the days before his death, but even so, the mercury levels in his blood were far too low to really support this idea, either.In 1996 Dr. R. Michael Benitez was at a clinical pathology conference, participating in an activity where he had been given a patient and a list of symptoms and was asked to diagnose the patient based on the symptoms, comparing his diagnosis both to the other doctors and the clinical record.Letter of E. A. PoeDr. Benitez determined that the patient, E.P., was clearly suffering from rabies, since his initial lethargy and confusion at intake spiraled down into delirium, hallucinations, and issues with pulse rate and breathing.Mysterious Books That Can’t Be ExplainedHe was also dead within four days, which is the average time of survival after exhibiting serious rabies symptoms.  E.P., of course, was Edgar Poe. There are a couple of issues this theory, too.Illustration by French impressionist Édouard Manet for the Stéphane Mallarmé translation of “The Raven,” 1875. Digitally restored.Poe never developed the hydrophobia (fear of water) that is a signature symptom of rabies. He also never had signs of any animal bites that may have given him the condition.It was, however, the first time that a medical person looked at Poe’s death without any preconceived ideas. More mundanely, Poe’s death has also been attributed to the flu, or a possible brain tumor.Portrait of Edgar Allan Poe, contributor to Graham’s Magazine.The last, and maybe the most Poe-like theory is that he was murdered by the brothers of his wealthy fiancée. One historian, using letters, memoirs, and newspapers for evidence, says it’s likely that Poe did make it Philadelphia, where he was confronted by the three brothers, and warned off marrying his fiancée.Poe got scared, disguised himself in other clothing and hid in Philadelphia for a week before heading back to Richmond and his wedding.Original burial spot of Edgar Allan Poe in Westminster Burial Ground, Baltimore, Maryland. Photo by JefferyGoldman CC BY-SA 4.0The brothers intercepted Poe in Baltimore, assaulted him, and forced him to drink whiskey that they knew would make him deathly ill. This theory hasn’t ever gained a lot of support, but it certainly does make sense in light of how Poe was found.Read another story from us: Stripping the name of Laura Ingalls Wilder from a children’s literature award causing angerEdgar Allan Poe’s death may have been caused by any of these things, or none, or a combination. It remains a mystery.last_img read more